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The outcomes from this research conform to observations from previous research, which reported a significant decrease in progressive motility of spermatozoa with moderate and high intensity exercise over a prolonged duration, concluding that progressive motility and exercise are negatively correlated .
Earlier research also supports these results, stating that training volume has a significant negative correlation to spermatozoa progressive motility, further suggesting that this could be due to low testosterone levels .
Contrastingly, earlier research found no association between physical activity and semen volume, but as the sample consisted of males that were considered infertile, comparability is reduced .
In stallions, improvements in seminal volume are associated with increased teasing .
Seminal volume, concentration and progressive motility were analysed for differences between competing and non-competing stallions, then for differences between stallion disciplines.
Results: Competing stallion semen concentration and progressive motility was significantly lower than noncompeting stallions (p) and the date in which the semen sample had been collected.
This may be a reason behind the increases in competing stallions due to the collection process differences between the two stud farms, with only one farm using a teaser mare.
More concerningly, the mean seminal volumes of both competing and noncompeting stallions were below that of the AI referencing ranges (60-120 ml).
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.The data within this study were found to be not normally distributed following the Kolmogorov Smirnov test, hence non-parametric statistical tests were to be performed.A series of Mann-Whitney U Tests compared semen volume, concentration, progressive motility and total sperm count between competing and non-competing stallions to determine if a difference existed between the two groups. A significance value of P Values in stallions competing at lower levels of competition (n=228) ranged from 6.00 ml to 182.00 ml and stallions at higher levels (n=570) ranged from 3.00 ml to 180.00 ml, with non-competing stallions (n=332) ranging from 6.00 ml to 120.00 ml (Figure 1b).A Kruskal-Wallis test of difference was used to determine if a difference existed in semen parameters between the stallion’s level of competition. Semen volume increased significantly between non-competing and competing stallions, and significantly increased with competition level (p=0.000).A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to identify if any differences occurred between stallion ages and breeds and semen quality. Research carried out with human participants supports the present findings, stating that physical activity has a significant positive effect on seminological attributes including seminal volume, suggesting the outcome is due to the favourable homeostatic balanced of LH and testosterone [16,24].
All of the samples were collected and assessed by DEFRA approved equine artificial insemination technicians at professional stud farms, ensuring at the time of collection animal welfare was not compromised and limiting ethical considerations.